Primary and secondary control of active power of generating installation 1 If a power plant is used for primary and secondary control of active power, the system operator shall conclude a corresponding contract with the producer. Hardware for Cluster was developed in the U. The tests shall last up to 12 months, unless agreed otherwise by the producer and system operator. A satellite failure caused a loss of the Equator-S mission after only 5 months, but these operations were extremely valuable in learning about the characteristics and operations of the complex EDI instrument. This report illustrates the considerable potential and benefits of using heat pumps and electric boilers, which are promising options for curbing climate-warming emissions and developing the heating- and cooling markets in the Baltic countries. The start-up periods for generating installations, from reception of the corresponding instruction from the system operator, are the following: 1 for the generating installations of thermal power plants, up to 12 hours from the cold state; 2 for gas-turbine units, up to 10 minutes; 3 for wind turbines, wind farms and solar power plants, up to 15 minutes provided weather conditions are such as to make it possible to start the installation.
Quinn, Jack; Christensen, John L. Technical Monitor The Electron Drift Instrument EDI Solar Wind Trading System a new technique for measuring electric fields in space by detecting the effect on weak beams of test electrons.
This U. Hardware for Cluster was developed in the U. The Cluster satellites carrying the original EDI instruments were lost in the catastrophic launch failure of first flight of the Arianne-V rocket in A satellite failure caused a loss of the Equator-S mission after only 5 months, but these operations were extremely valuable in learning about the characteristics and operations of the complex EDI instrument.
The Cluster mission, satellites, and instruments underwent an extensive on-orbit commissioning phase in the Fall ofcarrying over through January During this period all elements of the instruments were checked and careful measurements of inter-experiments interferences were made. EDI is currently working exceptionally well in Muudud tulude valikuvoimalused. Initial results verify that all aspects of the instrument are working as planned, and returning highly valuable scientific information.
The first two papers describing EDI on-orbit results have been submitted for publication in April, The principles of the EDI technique, and its implementation on Cluster are described in two papers by Paschmann et al.