The claimant included economic experts to prove that the infrastructure fees were indeed excessive. Riigikohus viitas aga Euroopa Kohtu välja kujunenud praktikale ja selgitas, et riigiettevõtte poolt tütarettevõttele antav laen, garantii, käendus jms soodustus võib osutuda riigiabiks ELTL artikli mõttes, kui täidetud on riigiabi teised tingimused.
The authority did not find an infringement or ended the proceedings having found that the competitive situation had improved. At the time of the facts of the matter the incumbent railway operator Eesti Raudtee Estonian Railway provided both infrastructure and cargo services within the same legal entity.
A competing cargo operator Spacecom needed access to railway infrastructure of Estonian Railway, but found the infrastructure usage fees to be excessive. Estonian Railways claimed that its costs related to infrastructure were very high and therefore that usage fees charged from Spacecom were justified.
To contest that Spacecom argued that if such high infrastructure fees were indeed justified, then the cargo service prices that Estonian Railway charged from its own customers must be too low so called predatory pricesbecause these could not possibly cover both the high infrastructure costs and additional costs related to providing cargo services.
For the competition law nerds like me, the issue is basically similar to the margin squeeze problem of Deutsche Bahn case. At the time of the case, the railway specific regulation was not clear about the cost components of railway infrastructure fees.
Delta valem Mis on Delta valem? Delta valem on suhetüüp, mis võrdleb vara hinna muutusi selle aluseks olevate vastavate hinnamuutustega. Lugeja on vara hinna muutus, mis kajastab seda, kuidas vara pärast viimast hinda muutus.
So, among all other arguments of the case, the general competition law logic had to be applied. The claimant included economic experts to prove that the infrastructure fees were indeed excessive.
However, both the first and second instance courts were reluctant to look in detail into the economics and rejected the claims. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not grant leave for cassation in this matter, though we really think it would have been very important that the Supreme Court had given instructions as to how to deal with competition damages cases already at that time.
The first case was followed by several other similar cases, but in all those cases the courts were still reluctant to scrutinize the pricing in detail. In our opinion these cases were somewhat ahead of their time.
Although we are not fully objective, we believe that the claims for damages were justified, but the courts at that time were just not yet ready to dig into the economics of the cases. Cable conduits are basically tubes in the ground and each telecom operator sought to direct its own cables through the conduits, instead of digging up the ground to Eurex Option Tehingu strateegia their own conduits there.
Hence, the conduits constituted an essential facility for competitors.
# 1 - Chicago juhatuse võimaluste vahetus (CBOE)
At the time of facts of the case, the cable conduit rent was approved by the Communications Authority. The companies that needed access to the cable conduits found that the rent was nevertheless excessive. The Competition Authority had not taken a decision in this matter, but had expressed opinion in its letters that the rent could indeed be excessive.
As a first step, the court of first instance issued an interim ruling finding that competition rules did not apply as the rent was subject to sector specific regulation. However, the Supreme Court made a very favourable ruling to towards the claimant finding that a dominant company must Trading Corps strateegia competition law even if sector specific rules are more lenient.
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Hence, the case went back to the first instance, where the dispute continued about whether the rent was indeed excessive. It was disputed which methodology to apply for calculating the capital costs of Elion. And of course, the big question was how to prove costs, as the only one having access to such evidence was Elion itself.
# 2 - Bostoni optsioonide börs
These questions remained unsolved as the cases were settled between the parties. So much about past cases. Let me now look into the future… What will the implementation of damages directive change? First Eurex Option Tehingu strateegia all — what will it not change … It will not change the competition law enforcement rules in general.
- "Старый, добрый Макс", - подумала Николь, несколько расслабившись.
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Therefore, it will not bring about radical changes. Hence these can be used as evidence for claiming damages.
See on maailma suurim optsiooniturg ja hõlmab enamikku kaubeldavatest optsioonidest. Samuti peetakse seda turuliidriks uute finantstoodete ja tehnoloogiliste uuenduste väljatöötamisel, eriti elektroonilise kauplemise puhul. Kauplemine sellel börsil toimub nende hübriidsüsteemi kaudu, mis võimaldab klientidel kaubelda - kas elektrooniliselt või endise Open Outcry meetodi abil. See meetod on traditsiooniline, mis hõlmab karjumist ja käsisignaalide kasutamist teabe edastamiseks, eriti ostu- ja müügitellimuste kohta. Enamik tehinguid teostatakse elektrooniliselt, mis moodustab väga suure osa nende äritegevusest, kuna mõned suured ja keerulised institutsionaalsed korraldused, mis nõuavad põrandamaaklerite oskusi, täidetakse avatud hüüde meetodil.
However, as said before, such decisions are quite rare in practice or at least have been rare thus far. Therefore, the civil court route will likely continue to be often the only alternative for the claimants in case of alleged abuse of dominance.
So, submitting civil claims will not be much easier in the future.
Aga nüüd siis ülevaated kohtuasjadest: Riigikohus selgitas riigiabi ja riigihangete seoseid parvlaevade hankega seotud vaidluses Riigikohtu halduskolleegium tegi 2. Asjaolud Edukas osutus TS-i tütarettevõtjate ühispakkumus, mis oli VL-i pakkumusest madalama hinnaga. VL vaidlustas hankija otsuse erinevatel alustel, muuhulgas sel alusel, et ühispakkujad võivad olla saanud ebaseaduslikku riigiabi, mis võimaldas neil teha sedavõrd madala hinnaga pakkumuse. VAKO, halduskohus ja ringkonnakohus jätsid kaebuse rahuldamata.
Lost profits can be claimed Until so far it has been always debatable whether lost profits could be claimed in case of competition law related damages claims, in particular, where the claim has been based on tort law. The law will make it clear that it must be possible claim lost profit in all cases of competition law infringements. More stringent rules on calculating delay interest As a rule delay interest is calculated from the moment of submitting the claim.
However, according to the planned legal amendments, the delay interest in case of competition law infringements Eurex Option Tehingu strateegia be calculated from the moment the damage occurred.
Longer limitation period The limitation period for damages claims will be extended from current three years to five years. Civil claims cannot be resolved in criminal matter concerning a cartel Due to the need to protect the leniency file, the law will make clear that civil claims related to cartel must be separated from the criminal case and handled only by civil court.